Although the extent to which adolescents are susceptible to the influence of their peers increases during early adolescence (Erickson, Crosnoe Dornbusch, 2000; Steinberg Silverberg, 1986 this is not the case with all individuals. They also reported that when adolescents feel rejected by their peers, they also feel rejected by their family and school friends and it is this fear of rejection and the need to be accepted that further influences adolescents. Adolescents may do this in order to create the notion that the behaviour in which they are engaging in is normal. Friendship has no age limit. Having friends to converse with and create bonds with allows the normal teen to enrich their social abilities and learn how to act around others. In particular, if a positive image is associated with the behaviour of the individual which the adolescent aspires to be like, the adolescent will be more likely to engage in such behaviour, especially if their peers admire the behaviour of the individual. Drugs and drinking behavior among youth.
Singer, Handbook of health psychology (pp. When the two boys entered high school, they found it difficult to fit into any of the cliques. Kandel and colleagues (1978) also reported peer influence as being the dominant force in an adolescents choice to engage in substance use and prior exposure through association or friendships with individuals who use substances is the strongest predictor (Kandel, 1980). This is a source of motivation for the individual to repeat the activity or engage in other approved activities (Kaplan, Martin Robbins, 1984). Oostveen,.,.,., De Vries,. Peer influence and peer relationships. It makes life sweet and pleasant experience. The need to be similar to peers is so strong that often adolescents will project aspects of their own personality or behaviours onto their peers when describing them so that they appear to be more similar to the peer group (Holmes, 1968). It was also found that the extent to which an adolescent is susceptible to the influence of their peers depends on the extent to which the adolescent is involved in the peer group (Kandel, Kessler Margulies, 1978). Children are seeing sexual images everywhere and it is creating muddled thinking in their minds.
Adolescents want the social images associated with such individuals to be associated with them and this is another reason why many adolescents experiment with substance use in order to acquire the social images desired (Blanton, Gibbons, Gerrard, Jewsbury Conger Smith, 1997). This is extremely influential in an adolescents decision to engage in such behaviours due to the fact that, as mentioned previously, adolescents have a strong need to fit in and belong to a particular identity and will often take. This is extremely fortunate, for a hobby is how the majority of teens find their friends. The way in which individuals choose their friends and the way in which the peer group influence the individuals decisions to engage in activities is often done so in two ways. Following this, the empirical evidence based on the phenomenon will be explored in detail.
Meanwhile, passive influence refers to the perceptions and interpretations which an individual has developed about a particular peer group and also the reinforcement of these perceptions and interpretations (Graham, Marks Hansen, 1991; Oostveen, Knibble De Vries, 1996). Trying drugs and alcohol may make a middle school child feel like he fits in with his classmates. Primary socialization theory: The etiology of drug use and deviance:. A good family social environment, positive peer influences, and good peer relationships tended to increase altruistic orientation (Ma, 2003). It all depends on how we choose our friends. Teen sex and pregnancy. Although many teens look for some alone time every once in a while, very few of them enjoy being alone all the time. Generally, it is only the people of the same age, character and background, mentality, etc., who can understand him and understand his problems.
According to Graham and colleagues (1991 both types of influence are independently associated with substance use in relation to alcohol. Applied Developmental Science, 4, 98-110. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 48, 243-251. Also, as was mentioned previously, members of peer groups often share similar social images of particular individuals which they aspire. Depending on which clique a child belongs to, he could become an honor student who never tries drugs or alcohol or he could become an alcohol or drug abuser, a bully, or he could become promiscuous which could lead to STDs or teen parenting. Kaplan and colleagues also found that adolescents who had previous or current experiences of substance use were more likely to become part of a peer group in which substance use is a common activity among peers (Kaplan, Martin Robbins, 1984). Deviant Behavior: A Social Learning Approach (2nd.). Although most teenage girls believe that sex equals love, other teens especially boys believe that sex is not the ultimate expression of the ultimate commitment, but a casual activity with minimal risks or serious consequences (Lebelle, 1999). Supporting childrens socialization: A developmental approach. Some young adolescents are able to do drugs and alcohol a few times and then quit whenever they want, but there are many who just try it once and then they are hooked.
As is too common in high school, the boys found themselves frequently picked on by athletes and other students (Rosenberg). X., Gerrard,., Jewsbury Conger,., Smith,. Everyone knows about the negative affects of peer pressure. Blanton,., Gibbons,. Friendship is both good and necessary. Developmental changes in conformity to peers and parents. However, it is important to note that as adolescents progress into working environments and romantic relationships, the relationship with their peers become less important and less influential (Brown, 2004). When people know others who enjoy partaking in common activities, they are able to grow in their talents and hobbies.
Bibliography: Black, S (2002, April). That is why it is important for parents and teachers to encourage their children and students to disassociate themselves from peers who drink. There are also times when children who are more athletic will bully classmates who are smaller and not as gifted at athletics. True friendship is a great asset in life. This essay will address the extent to which adolescents are influenced by their peer groups peer influence and friendship essay in relation to substance use.
The perceptions which an adolescent has in relation to the extent to which their peers use substances is also influential in adolescent substance use. It may be the case that both an adolescents peers and also the adolescents choice of peers may be influential in adolescent substance use rather than one or the other. W., Marks,., Hansen,. Knowles, T Brown,.F. Promiscuity is something that used to be frowned upon. However, it is better to have friends of the same age group and cultural backgrounds. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 164(3 267-74. This reinforces their belief that substance use is not wrong.
We spent much of our time with them. It is important to take this into account when reviewing the literature on the subject area as much of the research in this area is based on self-report measures and it is possible that the information collected may have been. Now it is cool to be sexually active as a young child. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 25 (3 270-289. Parents and teachers can allow the child to develop skills on their own time especially in situations where there is a family issue, death of a friend or classmate. A child who reaches age 21 without smoking, abusing alcohol or using drugs is virtually certain never to do so (Lebelle, 1999). The average American begins drinking regularly at age fifteen. That is, adolescents will form friendships simply because of similarities in the activities which they engage. In contrast, negative peer influence can be catastrophic. As mentioned previously, the selection model and the influence model are the two main ways in which adolescents choose their friends. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 291-298.
Adolescents spend the majority of their time with their peer group and thus the peer group is the dominant socialisation unit (Oetting Donnermeyer, 1998). It is difficult to know which teens will experiment and stop and which will develop serious problems (Lebelle, 1999). In contrast, the influence model suggests that a particular friendship will cause an individual to engage in particular activities because the individual wants to be like other members of the peer group (Bauman Ennett, 1994). Studies show that, almost always, peer influence is weaker than peer influence and friendship essay adults believe (Black, 2002). It is possible that the peer groups do not directly influence the use of substances among adolescents as according to the selection model, adolescents choose their friends because of a commonality in the activities which they engage. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, rosenberg, J (2006). Pressure from certain cliques cannot only influence drinking and drug use, but also bullying. Social influence processes affecting adolescent substance use. Also, this can create a strong connection and allows friends to have topics to talk about and things to do together. Adolescents also feel a need to fit in with their peers or have sense of belonging or a feeling of being normal and will often conform to activities of a particular group by participating in the same activities. As mentioned previously, adolescents also tend to project their own behaviours onto their peers when describing them. In order to correctly evaluate the influence of peers, it is necessary to research all possible scenarios in which peers may be seen to be influential.
Every group of people- children, youth, elders, very elderly peer influence and friendship essay people, etc. However, in this case, it is actually the adolescents perceptions which are influential rather than the peers per. That means that the majority of middle school children have already experimented with alcohol. Middle school is a tough time. American School, 189, Retrieved June 2, 2006, from ml (January 23, 2001). We have to distinguish between fair-weather friends and true friends. Some adolescents are more susceptible to peer influence than others (Berndt, 1979; Erickson, Crosnoe Dornbusch, 2000; Steinberg Monahan, 2007; Steinberg Silverberg, 1986). Illegal drug and alcohol use, promiscuity, bullying, and loss of identity can all result from negative peer pressure. Journal of Family Psychology, 11 (3 271-288.
Allowing children to participate in sports and other social activities that are peer influence and friendship essay non-threating, within the school and community setting helps improve social skills and develop healthy relationships. The popular kids are at the very top. Developmental Psychology, 41, 625-635. International Journal of Addictions, 22, 319-342. Consequently, they will go to great lengths in order to win their favor, allowing those they show more content, nevertheless, a positive effect of friends is help in making decisions. One of the major reasons for the extent to which peer groups influence substance use in adolescence is actually due to the fear of rejection and the need for acceptance of adolescents (Kaplan, Martin Robbins, 1984). The majority of people do not think of going anywhere without their friends, especially teenagers.
We need to select our friends very carefully. Peer pressure is real, peer influence and friendship essay but it is not always crippling. It can lead to good careers and proper living. It is common knowledge that many adolescents aspire to be like particular individuals in their society when they reach adulthood. Many cases of adolescent drinking are linked to pressure from peers. Good friends are great pillars of life.
Further research in the area is also needed as this essay only addresses the extent of the influence of peers on adolescents in a particular scenario.e. However, peer pressure can be positive; it is also not as scary as some may believe. In such cases, the peers did not initiate the substance use behaviour. Adolescents have also been observed to choose friendships with individuals who engage in similar activities to those which the particular individual engages. L., Crosnoe,., Dornbusch,. If the leader makes fun of fellow students who do not wear name brand clothing, then it is only natural for the other clique members to think that it is cool to do the same thing. Researchers have shown that caregivers who respond positively to childrens demands increase the childrens commitment to social relations and their desire to learn and comply with the norms of their social world (Richaud, 2006). Friendship can make or break.
Positive peer pressure can be overwhelmingly rewarding. Developmental Psychology, 15, 608-616. Although no one should allow others to make decisions for them, it helps to have friends to look to for advice. Children learn from others and imitate what they see and hear, so peer influences play an essential role in development. There is a hierarchy when it comes to cliques. Friendship is an elixir which is essential for a happy life. Introduction, according to Erikson (1950 during adolescence, the development of new identities which are meaningful are of upmost importance to the individual. Though influence and common interests are significant effects of friendships, there is something even more important. High school students choose their friends for various reasons, and some of their choices may result in positive and negative effects. Adolescents are directly influential in the use of substances among adolescents in the case of peer groups who restrict membership peer influence and friendship essay to those who use substances (Bauman Ennett, 1994). Firstly, the reasons why peers are influential will be discussed. There are many different ways that teachers and parents can help improve social skills and relationships among peers.
Teens also have cultural beliefs about what is normal sexual behavior. Man cannot live all alone. Age differences in resistance to peer influence. Even if a child is encouraged from the start to resist drugs and alcohol, he can still become involved with these deadly toxins. Peer groups have a large influence on a childs social development and it is important for a child to begin peer socialization at an early age (Bojczyk 2012). It does not matter how often you meet your friends, but how much you care and feel for another in good times as well as in bad times. It is no secret that middle school children strive to blend in with their peers. Another outcome of having friends is being able to connect with those of the same interests and/or hobbies. The reality is that sex has many risks and carries serious consequences. Those things are all well and good, but sometimes, the popular kids are also into partying with drugs and alcohol. He needs someone to share his joys and sorrows. This gives them time to work on developing the small group cooperative skills, while getting to know classmates in a safe environment.
Peer groups have been found to positively reinforce the use of substances if the peer group views substance use in a positive light. Self-image and peer influence and friendship essay social-image factors in adolescent alcohol use. The two killers in the Columbine tragedy, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, were supposedly tormented constantly by the Jocks. Conclusion, in conclusion, it is clearly apparent that peers may be influential in substance use among adolescents. Qualified writers in the subject of psychology are ready and waiting to help you with your studies. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. A., Tetzloff,., Hershey,. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29, 395-426. It is where friends are made and hold a substantial role in the students lives. This has even been said to be the cause of school violence.
Although, issues may arise, children should be allowed to develop these skills at their own pace. On the other hand, negative peer influence can encourage aggression, criminal activity, and other antisocial behaviors (Ormrod). Retrieved from Ma,. One effect of friends in high school is general influence. Read more: Influences that affect childrens development essay. Teachers need to be educated about these things. True friendship knows no boundaries or demarcations of caste, creed, race and sex. Boys and girls are maturing physically at rapid paces, but their emotional maturation is a peer influence and friendship essay lot slower. We will write a custom essay.
This can also create a sense of joy in ones heart as they know they are not alone and have others to whom they can run when they have unanswered. Most young adolescents desire adult treatment, because they are beginning to look like adults, but, on the inside, they are still easily influenced children. The empirical evidence cited in this essay provide evidence both for and against the notion that peers are influential in adolescent substance use. See more: speech on peer pressure, positive peer influence can encourage such desirable qualities as truthfulness, fairness, cooperation, and abstinence form drugs and alcohol. Therefore, we have to choose our friends very carefully. This can be good and bad. Processes of adolescent socialization by parents and peers.