Important negative results should be reported, too. Avoid use of the first person in this section. Of course you did, because that is what all good scientists do , and it is a given that you recorded your measurements and observations. 2) suggest that the optimal time for running-water treatment is 2 days. Step 1: Consult the guidelines or instructions that the target journal or publisher provides authors and read research papers it has published, especially those with similar topics, methods, or results to your study. Conclusion Future Work, acknowledgements Appendix. Avoid repetitive paragraph structures. The other way is to present a section and then discuss it, before presenting the next section with a short discussion. A simple introduction sentence for reporting results research paper rule-of-thumb is to imagine that you are another researcher doing an study similar to the one you are reporting. After you have assessed the data in one figure and explained it sufficiently, move onto your next research question. Table One shows that almost a quarter. Note : Very frequently the experimental design and data collection procedures for an experiment cannot be separated and must be integrated together.
Authors always acknowledge outside reviewers of their drafts (in PI courses, this would be done only if an instructor or other individual critiqued the draft prior to evaluation) and any sources of funding that supported introduction sentence for reporting results research paper the research. The introduction section of your research paper should include the following: General introduction Problem definition Gaps in the literature Problems solution Study motivation Aims objectives Significance and advantages of your work Click here for the academic phrases and vocabulary. Some use of first person is okay, but do not overdo. Consider seeking additional guidance on your paper. Others may read only titles and. Remember that the title becomes the basis for most on-line computer searches - if your title is insufficient, few people will find or read your paper. Review articles are particularly useful because they summarize all the research done on a narrow subject area over a brief period of time (a year to a few years in most cases). Step 5: Review your draft; edit and revise until it reports results exactly as you would like to have them reported to your readers. The results section always begins with text, reporting the key results and referring to your figures and tables as you proceed.
It is very easy to put too much information into the results section and obscure your findings underneath reams of irrelevance. Figures and Tables in Appendices Figures and Tables are often found in an appendix. It is also worth pointing out towards the end of the review that your study is unique introduction sentence for reporting results research paper and there is no direct literature addressing this issue. Example of a main section heading: introduction Subheadings: When your paper reports on more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize the presentation. Note that this author has included three graphs in one single figure. If you have performed experiments at a particular location or lab because it is the only place to do it, or one of a few, then you should note that in your methods and identify the lab or facility.
The abstract should include one or two lines briefly describing the topic, scope, purpose, results, and conclusion of your work. Reading the aims and scope in the journals guide for authors section and understanding the interests of its readers will be invaluable in preparing to write the Results section. The Results section should be organized around Tables and/or Figures that should be sequenced to present your key findings in a logical order. Data presented through a paired T-test table This kind of data may be presented through a figure or set of figures (for instance, a paired T-test table). Focus on experimental results and other findings that are especially relevant to your research questions and objectives and include them even if they are unexpected or do not support your ideas introduction sentence for reporting results research paper and hypotheses. Use past tense to describe what you did since you are reporting on a completed experiment. Figure legends go below the figure ; figures are usually viewed from bottom to top. Style : Use the active voice as much as possible. Problematic example : In this example the reader will have no clue as to what the various tubes represent without having to constantly refer back to some previous point in the Methods.
A good way to get on track is to sketch out the Introduction backwards ; start with the specific purpose and then decide what is the scientific context in which you are asking the question(s) your study addresses. Be sure to include negative results and highlight potential limitations of the paper. Do this by using key words from your Title in the first few sentences of the Introduction to get it focused directly on topic at the appropriate level. Top of page abstract. The text of the Results section should be crafted to follow this sequence and highlight the evidence needed to answer the questions/hypotheses you investigated. "The petri dish was placed on the turntable. Be sure to include negative results - writing a results section without them not only invalidate the paper, but it is extremely bad science. They might be flow diagrams, accumulation of data from the literature, or something that shows how one type of data leads to or correlates with another, etc. Results sections are usually written in the past tense. Purpose, scope, results, conclusion, click here for the academic phrases and vocabulary for the abstract section of the research paper.
When possible, give the actual latitude and longitude position of the site: these can be obtained using handheld GPS units, OR, from web resources such as Google Earth( TM ) and MapQuest( TM ). Do not fall into the trap of thinking that results contrary to what you expected are necessarily "bad data". This section answers the basic question What did you find in your research? The gold standard of the methods section is that it should enable readers to duplicate your study. Prepare the Tables and Figures as soon as all the data are analyzed and arrange them in the sequence that best presents your findings in a logical way. Specialized computer programs for a particular procedure full generic names of chemicals or compounds that you have referred to in somewhat abbreviated fashion or by some common name in the text of your paper. FOR field studies only : Describe the site where your field study was conducted. The description must include both physical and biological characteristics of the site pertinant to the study aims. One logical and clear method of organizing the results is to provide them alongside the research questionswithin each research question, present the type of data that addresses that research question.
Likewise place the unit after the last in a series of numbers all having the same unit. Location data must be as precise as possible: "Grover Nature Preserve, mi SW Grover, Maine" rather than "Grover Nature Preserve" or "Grover". Report ( Results section). Likert Items are included in this example. Coli culture using an inoculating loop. In this section, you present your findings. Your research question is based on a survey: What do hospital patients over age 55 think about postoperative care? Present the results of your experiment(s) in a sequence that will logically support (or provide evidence against) the hypothesis, or answer the question, stated in the Introduction. Subsequently, these can be referenced and analyzed under separate headings and paragraphs in the text. If you are using a novel (new, revolutionary, never used before) technique or methodology, the merits of the new technique/method versus the previously used methods should be presented in the Introduction. Catalogue your findingsuse subheadings to streamline and clarify your report. Likewise, when you report that one group mean is somehow different from another (larger, smaller, increased, decreased, etc it will be understood by your reader that you have tested this and found the difference to be statisticallysignificant, especially if you also report a p-value.05.
The negative results, and how you handle them, often gives you the makings of a great discussion section, so do not be afraid to highlight them. It is correct to point this out in the results section. The abstract section of your research paper should include the following: Topic. Strategy for Writing the Results Section. For instance: As Figure 1 shows, 15 out of 60 patients in Group A responded negatively to Question. Most often it is not. The authors' names (PI or primary author first) and institutional affiliation are double-spaced from and centered below the title.
However, criticising others work without any basis can weaken your paper. Acknowledgements and Appendix: There is no standard way to write acknowledgements. You restate your aims and objectives and summarize your main findings and evidence for the reader. Style : The style in this section should read as if you were verbally describing the conduct of the experiment. In this case, perhaps a introduction sentence for reporting results research paper table illustrating data from a survey. In our example case, start with the positive survey responses regarding postoperative care, using descriptive phrases. " A Spec 20 was used to measure A 600 of Tubes 1,2, and 3 immediately after chloroplasts were added (Time 0) and every 2 min. When you are first learning to write in this format it is okay, and actually preferable, to use a pat statement like, "The purpose of this study was." or "We investigated three possible mechanisms to explain the. Information in figures should be relatively self-explanatory (with the aid of captions and their design should include all definitions and other information necessary for readers to understand the findings without reading all of the text. In either case you should discuss reasons for similarities and differences between yours and others' findings. What advantages does it confer in answering the particular question(s) you are posing?