The initiand is made to wait in darkness and silence for a period of timein Scottish lodges the members of the lodge file out and leave the initiand alone and in the darkness for an extended period, sometimes even having dinner in that time. In places it is a little confused and I rather suspect he does not fully understand the theoretical source-material, but nonetheless it is an accessible introduction to the subject, especially of the big picture (if you dont mind correcting the. 33 The first is of society as a structured, hierarchical system of political, economic and legal privileges, separating men in terms of more and less. The first murderer, or ruffian, requests the secrets of a Master Mason and is refused and strikes a blow on the initiands head. Young, Sandy: 2000: Personal communication. The article can be found online. 35 The border between structure and anti-structure is rich in symbols, and the passport that allows the crossing of that border is often a familiarity with those symbols ( fig. While van Gennep identifies the ordeal as part of the separation process, scourging away the past, 45 in the Gnostic schema the ordeal separates the two states of pre-birth and post-birth bliss, or, to draw on Christian symbolism, the. We also see the same phenomenon in the cycle of the seasons: a waxing sun beginning at the Spring Equinox in the east, a sun at its zenith in the Summer Solstice to the South, a waning. The emphasis on education affirms the transitional nature of the degree; education takes time and in our society attendance at educational institutions is the particular province of those undergoing transition into adulthood. Combining aspects of performance, weaving, sculpture and installation that draw upon his upbringing, his cross-disciplinary practice is an ongoing investigation into hybrid identity, particularly in relation to race and sexuality.
The first is historical: tracing the development of the various rites and rituals from the Masonic prehistory of the 17th century to today, while the second is esoteric: the seeking of lost and hidden wisdom that has been encoded in Masonic ritual and legend. 50 Turner: The Forest of Symbols, p100. The liminal phase of ritual is particularly critical because, according to Turner, the initiates are all treated equally, deprived of all distinguishing characteristics of an external (that is profane) social structure. Scottish working of the Master Mason degree. Part One: Pre-liminality The lodge is then essays on liminality opened in the second degree as a pre- liminary phase to the third; each degree has the furniture (symbols) of the lodge arranged, concealed or revealed in a particular manner according to the degree. Start with Prometheus Rising and New Inquisition, and if you like them (and you may think they are a load of rot try his other books. Appendixes and Endnotes follow.
18 After the collapse of the Roman Empire it is impossible to follow the thread of the classical Mystery initiatory schema through the Dark Ages and the medieval period, and it is more than likely that the apostolic succession of this schema was broken. The newly made Master Mason is told by the Worshipful Master that he is free to take his seat anywhere, a marked departure from the Entered Apprentices and Fellow Crafts who have prescribed places within the lodge. He completed his PhD at University of Manchester in 1955. Death is presented as an absolute inevitability, and the initiand is advised to fully prepare himself for the inevitable while he still has the wherewithal to. It is out of the Structuralist school of Social Anthropology that the most fruitful ideas and theories have arisen for consideration in the context of Masonic ritual. 45 Van Gennep, p81. 3, in it, Arnold van Gennep wrote that human societies have a universal impulse to recognise and mark certain important transitions in a persons life: events such as birth, death, coming-of-age, marriage and parentage. Freemasonry Happy is he among men upon earth who has seen these mysteries.
7, the second reason is that secret societies, by their very definition, are secret. 7 It was not until the 1970s, when the supply of pre-industrial societies was starting to essays on liminality dry up, that ethnographic studies on elements of modern societies started to become popular. A wero (challenge) is given at the entrance of the marae/pa. In 2018, Adams was awarded the Standard Bank Young Artist Award for Visual Art. Today, however, this last constraint is somewhat less binding than it has been in the past, since, in an effort to become more open (and thereby attract new members the Grand Lodge of New Zealand, in line with. "Performance and performativity - a method to study the media and how the abolition of slavery has been commemorated". 28 Victor Turner: The Ritual Process, Routledge Kegan Paul, London 1969, p94. Such a bond is almost universally accepted as a sign of trust and acceptance by an individual and, by inference, the group that individual may represent.
This paper has barely touched upon part of the Master Mason ritual (which is part of Craft Freemasonry and which, in turn, is only part of the whole Masonic edifice using only a sample of the theories of only two anthropologists. As an example, English anthropologist a Fontaine attempted an analysis of one of the initiation rituals of Freemasonry in her book Initiation. 3 First published in French in 1906 as Les rites de passage ; however it was not translated into English until 1960. 37 Turner: Dramatic Ritual/Ritual Drama: Performance and Reflexive Anthropology, pp85-86. 14 Additionally, the academics who are members of the Craft tend to feel the constraints of the Masonic obligations of secrecy, which have an obvious curtailing effect on their work. That debacle was only one manifestation of an array of accumulating threats to the postmodern order, which include the burdens of empire, onerous debt, population overshoot, fracturing globalism, worries about energy, disruptive technologies, ecological havoc, and the specter of climate change. The real characteristic of religious phenomena, Durkheim wrote, is that they suppose a bipartite division of the whole universe, known and unknown. I made one conscious blunder: I lay down high-quality landscape cloth directly over more ». Starting in the late 1960s, however, sacred drama began to be seen as something else, something more complex, and Victor Turners work on the Ndembu tribe of Africa (1967) is possibly the seminal work on the subject and. However, reading Levi-Strauss for Beginners, by Boris Wiseman and Judy Groves may well be a good idea before tackling the master. Heres a shot of the potager in front of the house in July of 2013: The first thing I more december 7, 2013 4:45 pm, i moved here in November and have been exploring it through this weird, snowless winter of 2012. He writes in what I find to be a very entertaining and provoking style, and is not to be attempted by readers without a sense of humour.
The initiand has moved from social invisibility to social visibility within the Masonic schema. Initially I grappled with deconstructing my hybrid identity, focusing on my multicultural, religious and sexual identities in relation to the domestic and political environments in which they were formed, hoping to understanding the conflict I was experiencing. The chief then dispatches a warrior to investigate. As Turner has pointed out, liminality is frequently likened to death, being in the womb, to invisibility, to darkness, to bisexuality, to the wilderness, and to the eclipse of the sun or the moon. For example, all three primary officers of the lodge are associated with the sun during parts of the day and there is no officer in the north representing nightthe sun has set. The common association with, and shared experience of, the Masonic initiation implies a commonality and equality that may not otherwise be shared. 13 Unfortunately, this attempt essays on liminality is far from satisfactory, not only because of its brevity (it serves the purpose of quickly illustrating Arnold van Genneps three phases of a rite of passagemore about that later) but also because she is basing. The method of resurrection is by the Five Points of Fellowship, which comprises one of the secrets of a Master Mason and one of the modes of recognition between Freemasons. Walter Burket says, in Ancient Mystery Cults, The basic idea of an initiation ritual is generally taken to be that of death and rebirth, while Arnold van Gennep, the great anthropological theorist on the study of ritual in religion. Anti-structure generates imagery and symbolism as a natural consequence of its very existence. A prolific author, Levi-Strauss The Structural Study of Myth in the Journal of American Folklore (1955 is one of the seminal works on the deconstruction of myths, using the Oedipus story as an exemplar. Like many of the Manchester anthropologists of his time, he also became concerned with conflict.
In the next phase, in most but not all lodges in New Zealand, comes a recitation of a number of passages that re-enforce the transitory (or liminal) nature of human existence: God. Robert Turner, poet, frederick Turner, and Rory Turner, an anthropology professor at Goucher College. As you can see, I began the project of converting the grass paths to wood chips as winter began. Two lectures on various aspects of the symbolism found in a Master Masons lodge follow, and then the Final Charge, which outlines the expected behaviour of a Master Mason. My focus has since shifted to wanting to know more about the self from a multidimensional, universal and mystical position.
The authors who have chosen to write in detail about the nature of Masonic ritual take, at best, a highly symbolic or abstract approach, such as: the Winding Stairs consists of 3, 5, and 7 steps, numbers which. I assumed we might last another hundred years if we were lucky. Is it definite that the person is going to die soon? It is our ritual that sets us apart from other organisationsand perhaps it even defines us as Freemasons. My aim has always been to question and challenge boundaries in a sensitive way. Turner states that there are two models for human interrelationship. 53 Bill and Teds Excellent Adventure. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
Masonically, the Fellow Craft degree affirms an initiands membership within Freemasonry, but reminds him that he has a form of probationary membership and no significant authority within Freemasonry. 21 Frazer repeatedly identifies ritual as fulfilling an inherently magical function, particularly death and resurrection rituals, which he explicitly associates with totemism. 41 Van Gennep, pp2728. Clifford Geertz 40 Van Genneps Three Phases of Ritual The three Craft degrees of FreemasonryEntered Apprentice, Fellow Craft and Master Masonwhen examined as a single initiatory system clearly show van Genneps three phases of a rite of passage. However, both van Gennep and (to a more limited extent) La Fontaine have dated somewhat, and a useful anthology to read to gain a wider and more modern appreciation of ritual theory is Readings in Ritual Studies, edited by Ronald L Grimes. Such passages are of a quality Frances Yates described as pessimistic Gnosticism; 44 life is suffering, and life is a trial to be endured. Or, as Schwartz more pedantically puts it, the idioverse is the individual cognitive, evaluative and affective mapping of the structure of events and the classes of event. 27 The pre-liminal phase comprises behaviour that symbolically detaches the individual from the group, removing prior social status and/or cultural conditioning. For this reason it is not unreasonable to equate Freemasonry with religion, or even magic, for the purpose of the discussion of the theory of ritual. Turner returned to University College in 1946 with a new focus on anthropology.
3 4 Turner explored Arnold van Gennep 's threefold structure of rites of passage and expanding theories on the liminal phase. Upon the initiands admittance into the lodge, the room is almost pitch black, with only a very dim light glowing in the symbolic east quarter of the lodge. Prometheus Rising, New Falcon Publications, Tempe 1993. 2007 The Abazobi workshop initiated by the Robben Island Museum, Cape Town 2007 The Thupelo International Art Workshop organized by Greatmore Studios, Cape Town publications, essays reviews 2019 Vitamin T: Threads and Textiles in Contemporary Art, Phaidon Press,. Because the historian has passed by, the charlatan, the axe-grinder and the paranoiac long had the field to themselves. Society for Humanistic Anthropology". In the Entered Apprentice degree, the most dramatic portions of the ritual focus on the rites of separation. Low Twelve is then soundedthe tolling of a bell or gong twelve times, an obvious allusion to midnight, traditionally associated with the darkest part of the night, witchcraft and the powers of darkness, and that moment when it is neither yesterday nor tomorrow. There follows a reading from Ecclesiastes 12:7, which essays on liminality again reinforces the dread inevitably of death, while the initiand is circumambulated around the lodge in a manner reminiscent of a funeral procession. That being said, here is a short list of books that may be a good place to start: Two small and unintimidating works are Arnold van Gennep, Rites of Passage, and a Fontaine, Initiation. 31 Turner: Dramatic Ritual/Ritual Drama: Performance and Reflexive Anthropology, p25. Much of the ritual work that accentuates equality can be found in the Entered Apprentice degree, where it is stressed that all who have become Freemasons have done so blindfolded and poor and penniless, and even monarchs have exchanged the Sceptre for the Trowel.
2 Words being, of course, just another kind of symbol system. Adams lives and works in Cape Town, South Africa. 48 Part Three: Incorporation After the initiand has lain in the grave for a time, he is resurrected. 33 Turner: The Ritual Process,.9697. The basic box was up at the end of 2013. With the shift in focus at universities towards Post-modernism and interdisciplinary studies, and the shift within the Craft itself towards a more open and transparent form of Masonry, I feel that potentially we are entering a new.
47 The motif of the wilderness is also to be found in the ritual. Thus, while a complete rite of passage may include all three states, in specific rituals these three types may not be of equal importance or significance. But the liberation of human capacities of cognition, essays on liminality affect, volition, creativity, etc., from the normative constraints incumbent upon occupying a sequence of social statuses. Preface, the study of Masonic ritual has traditionally taken one of two paths. World War II, and served as a noncombatant until 1944. The final degree, Master Mason, forms the climax of the three degrees, both structurally and dramatically, and reintegrates the initiand into the community of the lodge. The general pattern of the Hiramic legend in the Master Masons initiation also follows Turners four stages of social drama. 55 A History of Religious Ideas: from the Stone Age to the Eleusian Mysteries, University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1978, p301. The warrior affirms that the stranger is friendly and relays this information to the chief, who allows him to be admitted into the village/lodge under probationary circumstance. 38 Turner: Turner: Dramatic Ritual/Ritual Drama: Performance and Reflexive Anthropology, p80. He developed the new concept of social drama in order to account for the symbolism of conflict and crisis resolution among Ndembu villagers. Three Kings, 1999 (USA).
For a variety of reasons this is a question that has largely been left unansweredand, I rather suspect, unasked. Historically, the Structuralists essays on liminality have done much work with myth and kinship patterns. Victor Witter Turner ( 18 December 1983) was. Masons are encouraged to conform to the tenets of Freemasonry by lateral pressure (from other members) and pressure from above (by the repetition of the symbols and motifs of the ritual as shown in figure. Freemasonry is a society of men and, like any society, over the centuries it has developed a complex set of interactions and relationships within itself and with the outside world. The complexity of the Masonic schema is such that it would not be unreasonable to expect that a book would be required to simply summarise the interactions of these different forces from an anthropological perspective and, with the relaxing. In Turners work is found the beginnings of an approach which sees ritual as a deeply symbolic expression of a given set of core values that are not tied directly to a mechanical interpretation of society, such as reinforcing powerandcontrol relationships. 36 Rituals facilitate the crossing of the threshold between structure and antistructure in that they mark a detachment of the individual from structure (society) in preparation for re-integration into the anti-structure (in our case, the Lodge).
Wiseman, Boris Groves, Judy: Levi-Strauss for Beginners, Icon Books, Duxford 1997. There is, however, the widest possible disagreement as to how the word ritual should be understood, but, for the sake of simplicity, quibbling about what is and is not ritual will be put aside and assumed that ritual. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. The narrativesdramatic, ritual, or otherwiseengage the interest of observer and participant via their own life experiences, whether they are consciously or unconsciously aware. This peculiar rearrangement of everyday clothes serves to reinforce the idea that the initiand is separating from the normal codes and conventions of the everyday world and is preparing to enter a separate world, in effect a separate reality. Masonic authors, who have the enthusiasm and experience in matters Masonic, and academic professionals, who have a significant exposure to a largely specialist body of knowledge and learning which may be able to shed light on a variety of different aspects of Masonic life. An analogy is the difference between a map and the actual countryside the map represents.
17 razer: The Golden Bough, Papermac, London 1978, pp90517 18 Mircea Eliade: A History of Religious Ideas: from the Stone Age to the Eleusian Mysteries, University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1978, pp290301. Director Stephen Herek, with Keanu Reeves, Alex Winter. It has further significance in that the communication of the Master Masons Word can only be given in the posture of the Five Points of Fellowship. 44 Frances A Yates: Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition, Routledge Kegan Paul, London 1964. (2) The of familiar and commonplace elements of cultural configurations (what we see/experience in our everyday world). The first great school of anthropological thought was the Functionalists, who viewed all social dynamics as primarily politicallyor economicallybased concerns centred on the long-term survival of the social or individual unit (depending on the type of Functionalism followed). However, if we change our frame of reference back to the examination of the rituals of all three degrees as a single body, then the initiand can be seen to be in a phase of liminality or transition. 39 Turner: The Ritual Process, pp117,128129. And finally, one cannot discuss the serious study of myth without mentioning Joseph Campbell. 31 Turner, however, centralises the importance of liminality in ritual and from that develops what he calls comitatus or communitas.
Can I speculate as to exactly when that might happen? 49 Turner: The Forest of Symbols, pp93111. Theorists such as razer and ylor held that non-European, and therefore non-scientific, societies explained their world by using a magico-religious model, a model that evolved into science and differed from science primarily in being wrong. 11 Part of the reason why there has been no authoritative or, indeed, reliable discussion on the construction and mechanism of Masonic ritual is that serious amateur study of this subject has been associated with the excesses of the. 43 In the Master Mason ritual we can find almost all of these expressions of liminality. My sense of this is based only on probability. Such experiences are sure to remain embedded in the mind of the initiand, but it is an experience only open to the initiand and, as van Gennep remarked, only the first time counts. For Turner, the uniting feature of such diverse groups as court jesters, millenarian movements, dharma bums, monastic orders, tiny nations, wandering monks, and Masonic lodges are that they are people or principles who are operating, temporarily or permanently, outside the. Masons refer to each other as brothers, implying an essential essays on liminality equality among themselves (though, as in any family, some brothers are more equal than others, and senior members posses honorifics, such as Worshipful Brother, Very Worshipful Brother, Right Worshipful Brother and Most Worshipful Brother).
He then has his clothing rearranged so as to expose a heel, a knee and part of the chest, and is blindfolded before being led into the lodge to undergo his ceremony of initiation. A border is drawn, and only the initiated may cross. Van Gennep's structure consisted of a pre-liminal phase (separation a liminal phase (transition and a post-liminal phase (reincorporation). Director David Russell, with George Clooney, Mark Wahlberg, Ice Cube, essays on liminality Spike Jonze. The initiand then receives the Exhortation which dwells on the subject of death, reminding the initiand to make use of his allotted time on Earth, and to warn him that he is about to re-enact the death of Hiram Abif. 41 Van Gennep Marae Lodge The arrival of a stranger reinforces the cohesion of the group. For other people named Victor Turner, see. 10 At worst, they leap head first into the abyss of downright stupidity, as did Charles Leadbeater: It is by the use of those perfectly natural but supernormal facilities clairvoyance that much of the information given in this book has been obtained. Hymn to Demeter 16 Freemasonry, as will be discussed in this paper, consists of the three Craft degrees, starting with the Initiation and culminating with the drama of the murder of Hiram and the resurrection of the candidate into the community of the lodge. Runners are used to indicate when the visitors approach the marae.
Turner initially studied poetry and classics at the. 23 Emile Durkheim: The Elementary Forms of Religious Life, trans Joseph Ward Swain, Free Press, London 1915, pp4041. Clusterfuck Nation For your reading pleasure Mondays and Fridays Support this blog by visiting Jims Patreon Page Not long ago, few Americans of the thinking persuasion might have imagined that such a well-engineered republic, with its exquisite checks and balances, sturdy institutions. Victor Turner and Contemporary Cultural Performance. 53 As Robert Anton Wilson points out repeatedly in his many books, the repetition of theme or symbol, especially one that that has prior emotive loadingsuch as deathaffects the conscious and subconscious mind of the observer/participant. Much of his later works deal with the relationship between theatre and ritual and is also profitable reading. The Drums essays on liminality of Affliction: A Study of Religious Processes Among the Ndembu of Zambia, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1968. Contents, early life edit, victor Turner was born in, glasgow, Scotland, son to Norman and Violet Turner. 22 A contrasting approach relies more on a semiotic evaluation and has been advanced by Emile Durkheim, Arnold van Gennep and Victor Turner, among others. Filmography Bill and Teds Excellent Adventure, 1989 (USA). As the initiand prepares himself outside the lodge, the lodge opens itself as a Master Masons lodge and prepares itself for the ceremony. Hayward, H L: Freemasonry and the Ancient Mysteries in The Builder, 1923. Before the war its name was Union, NY, and before that it was called Whipple Cityafter its founder, Job ter the Civil War, the name Union was deemed politically incorrect for a nationwishing to more may 15, 2013 2:47 pm).
The best faces of emerging contemporary art, Wired, Italy). MacNulty, W Kirk: Freemasonry: A Journey through Ritual and Symbol, Thames Hudson, London 1997. Personal Communication Hart, Alan: 1985: Personal communication. He has justly been called the philosopher of the Psychedalic Generation, but thirty-five years later he is still going strong. 51 Within Freemasonry, the principle that all its members are intrinsically equal is a highly prized tenet, fostered not only by the ritual, but also by members attitudes to each other. Igshaan Adams was born in 1982 in Cape Town, South Africa.