Plans were drawn up for the con- struction of a German navy that would contest British domination of the high seas. In the same year Britain had concluded an alliance with Japan in recog- nition of that nation's value as a counterweight to Russian power in the Far East, thereby liberating more British battleships for redeployment in home waters. T Recognizing that certain technical terms of international economics may be unfamiliar to the stu- dent, I have included a glossary which should be consulted when such terms are encountered in the text. It permits the author to discount or ignore several categories of topics that often occupy nt places in history text- books in order to concentrate on those events and processes that relate to the un- derlying theme. The myth of political affinity derived from the use of the term "republic" as a label for the governmen- tal systems of the Latin American nations.
One is hard put to imag- ine a more forbidding enterprise. Its clear and concise style make The Twentieth-Century World an essential text for courses on twentieth-century international e Twentieth-Century World: An International History (William. The book uses a distinctive analytical framework in order to examine the evolving relations between the major world powers throughout the last century. In reality the continents of North and South America, though connected by a nar- row strip of land, achieved their normal communication by sea in the nineteenth century and by air later in the twentieth. For centuries it had been ruled by a decentralized feudal oligarchy con- sisting of territorial lords (daimyo) and an aristocratic caste of warriors (samu- rai). In February 1904 the new nation signed a treaty authorizing the United States to construct a fifty-mile-long canal across the isthmus in a zone leased and fortified by the government in Washington. Keylor ) Ebook PDF epub Download Free E-ReaderDownload The Twentieth-Century World: An International History (William.
The Bibliographical Essay has been lengthened to reflect the appear- ance of new scholarship in the history of international relations since the publica- tion of the first edition. European settlements were subse- quently established on the coasts of these exotic lands to facilitate the exploita- tion of their valuable economic resources, such as the precious metals, sugar, and animal furs of the Americas, the spices. Despite the sameelashari Highlight Britain's very survival seemed to depend on her ability to keep open the sealanes over which these vital supplies were transported. Profiting from China's internal disarray, the Russian government extracted from Beijing in 1898 a long-term lease on the southern portion of the Liaotung Peninsula (including Port Arthur) together with the right to construct a railroad linking the port to the. Consequently, the United States was able to wrest from Spain the Caribbean remnants of her once great empire in the New World (the islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico) after the Spanish-American War without provoking the opposition of a Britain thus elsewhere engaged. One observer went so far as to describe the French empire as having been built by "bored army officers looking for excitement he might have added: "and by railroad builders and traders in search of quick profits.". France's vulnerable position in a Europe dominated by the powerful German Empire that had been formed at her own expense after the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71) dictated a perpetual preoccupation with continental affairs. Henceforth, the sea route running through the Mediter- ranean, the Suez Canal, and the Red Sea into the Indian Ocean-a much more economical and less dangerous route than the passage around the Cape of Good Hope on the. In short order the major financial institutions of London began to invest heavily in railroad and road construction, the improvement of ports and harbors, and other ventures undertaken by British firms as part of the preliminary process of colo- nial development. Includes bibliographical references and index. The entire structure of Japanese society was thenceforth reorganized on the basis of these European models. Twice she was prevented from doing so by the intervention of the great powers, militarily in the Crimean War (1854-56) and diplomatically at the Congress of Berlin (1878) following the Russo-Turkish War.
Norman Naimark gave the essay william keylor the twentieth century world manuscript a careful reading and rescued it from factual errors and un-, I have attempted to record my immense debt to other scholars in the bibliographical essay that ap- pears at the end of this work. A con- *The term "Western" shall be employed in this study to designate that portion of the northern hemi- sphere inhabited primarily by Europeans or immigrants of European stock. Turkish maltreatment of the Balkan Slavs periodi- cally elicited harshly worded protests from Saint Petersburg together with fer- vent appeals from Pan-Slavist ideologues and ambitious individuals at the Russ- ian court for their liberation from Ottoman oppression. The result of this British pol- icy, often pursued in partnership with France, was that Russia was condemned to endure one of the most debilitating geographical handicaps imaginable for a state with ambitions of becoming a world power. Collectively they possessed a common religion, cul- tural heritage, and (with the exception of Brazil) language, advantages that had traditionally facilitated regional communication and cooperation. International Relations at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century 15 china N i 0 Russ'1an Emp'1re m, Extent of Russian Occupancy (1900-1905),-, British Sphere of Influence - German Sphere of Influence 0 200. Yet, to my knowledge, there exists no college-level textbook that incorporates the findings of these recent specialized studies in a format that is genuinely global or international in scope. Still others stress the role of national pride and the search for national prestige. To all of these friends and associates I am grateful. It may takes up to 1-5 minutes before you received. Nor did the French financial community seek colonial outlets for accumulated capital in the manner of the large London banking houses. This is the intangible phe- nomenon of the search for prestige. Even Spain was able to reannex the Do- minican Republic for a four-year period beginning in 1861.
Both had established coastal footholds along the nonEuropean land masses of the world during the first wave of European imper- ial expansion: England had disposed of its surplus population during its indus- trial revolution in the eighteenth and nineteenth. In the meantime, the economy of the Caribbean region had been tightly linked to the superior economic system of what resentful Latin Americans had begun to call "the Colossus of the North." Direct American investment in electric utilities, railways, sugar, oil. It would be tedious to repeat each time what is denoted by these handy labels: the political, economic, and military elites that shape the foreign policies of a state. The newly created client states of Cuba and Panama were forced to include clauses in their constitutions stipulating the right of the United States to intervene to protect their independence and preserve so- cial order, and both were induced. The German seizure of the port of Kiao-Chow in 1897 set in motion a scramble for economic concessions that rapidly revealed the fictitious nature of Chinese sovereignty. A political revolution that swept International Relations at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century 17 Russia in the aftermath of the military defeat of 1905 compelled the tsar to grant a constitution, convoke a representative parliament, and guarantee fundamental civil liberties for the first time. It also increased the likelihood of tension between France and England in regard to overlapping colonial claims and therefore reduced the possibility of those two nations joining forces to oppose Germany in Europe. It was the first instance in the modem era of a non-Western nation de- feating a great power of Europe. Donate, the twentieth century world and beyond. The consequence of this long process of ex- pansion in all directions was the creation, for the first time in history, of a gen- 3 4 The Twentieth-Century World uinely interlinked and interdependent world with Europe as its focal point. In March the passage of Germany's first naval law and Russia's acquisition of a naval base at Port Arthur in Manchuria heralded the entry of two new contestants in the scramble for colonies and concessions in Asia.
As with Turkey and Persia, Russian entree to a year-round harbor was blocked by a politically unstable, economically backward, militarily impotent state. But before renewing its forward policy in the Balkans, Russia took the precautionary step of seeking a resolution of its long-standing disputes with Great Britain in southern Asia; the focal points of this antagonism were Persia and Afghanistan, the. Yet in spite of this preoccupation with the German menace in Europe, France simultaneously embarked on a campaign of colonial expansion that left it in pos- session of the world's second largest empire by the end of the nineteenth cen- tury. More important, the flow of private capital to the developing regions of Eastern Europe was actively pro- moted by the French government, which to a far greater degree than its British counterpart, regarded foreign investment as an instrument of diplomacy. But they promoted and patronized its campaign, partly to divert attention from domestic difficulties, partly to undermine Ottoman authority in the Slavic regions of Southern Europe. Naval strategists, concerned about the growing naval strength of Japan across the Pacific, considered the Isthmus of Panama an ideal site for a canal linking the Atlantic and the Pacific that would permit the concen- tration of naval forces in either ocean on short notice. Coexistence and Confrontation (1953-1962) "New Look" The Post-Stalinist "Thaw" The Crisis Years : From Berlin to Cuba. It was violated with impunity whenever London saw fit for whatever reason to suspend its appli- cation. I would particularly like to express my gratitude to Lancelot Farrar, Carole Fink, Diane Kunz, David Mayers, and Stephen. Japan suffered from a shortage of arable land and natural resources and lacked a large internal market for its industrial output. The writer so presumptuous as to undertake a survey of the entire world of the twentieth century in 400-odd pages promptly acquires the virtue of humility as he confronts the immense corpus of secondary literature on specialized topics. But this new acquisition did not afford Russia her coveted outlet to the open seas, for Vladivostok's harbor was icebound for most of the winter.
France, in addition to her naval collaboration with England and Spain, overthrew the Mexican government and installed a French client state in 1863, which remained in power for four years. Though these concessions were diluted by all manner of restrictions on popular sovereignty and democratic rights, the social unrest that had prompted them set in motion a wave of clandestine revolutionary activity that was to culminate in the overthrow. Book details Author : William. Venezuelan appeals to the United States for support, combined with American anxiety about the possi- ble extension of British economic influence along the southern shore of the Caribbean, prompted a spectacular diplomatic initiative from Washington. This propi- tious combination of isolation from great essay william keylor the twentieth century world power interference and proximity to economically valuable, strategically vulnerable regions propelled the United States into a policy of imperial expansion in its own region during the very pe- riod that. By means of the Hay-Pauncefort Treaty, Great Britain re- nounced an earlier agreement stipulating joint Anglo-American construction and operation of a Central American canal. 198 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10016. I have also rewritten portions of earlier chapters to reflect the findings of recent scholarship and to devote more attention to topics that had been slighted in the two previous editions. By the end of the century, a Japanese shipbuilding and munitions industry had been established. This somewhat vague sentiment of ethnic kin- ship between the Balkan and Russian Slavs had gradually developed in the course of the nineteenth century into a program for political unification.
It was indeed a lifeline in a very real sense: Since her transformation from an agricultural to an industrial econ- omy at the beginning of the nineteenth century, Great Britain customarily pro- duced no more than 30 percent. The Latin republics had won their political independence early in the nineteenth century. This was so for two reasons: First, these established governments were presumed, wrongly as it turned out, to afford greater security for investment than more speculative ventures in far-off lands in various stages of political disorganization. For all of these reasons, Japan seemed destined to remain politically immature, economically backward, and militarily impotent. Select another clipboard, looks like youve clipped this slide to already. As "sister republics the United States and the countries to the south came to be regarded as joint custodians of a common legacy of democratic government that distinguished them from the monarchical tradition of the old world. Anyone in 1984 who had predicted the following developments would surely have been dismissed as mentally incompetent: The disintegration of the Soviet East European empire and the emergence of multiparty political systems and market-oriented economies in a large. The petroleum resources of Mexico and Venezuela, Chilean copper, Bolivian tin, and several other industrial raw materials that were in comparatively short sup- ply in the United States came under the direct control of American firms. The problem of keeping the fleets supplied with fuel, which represented a potential constraint on Britain's ability to preserve its mastery of the seas, was solved by the acquisition of coaling stations across the globe.
These strate- gically situated outposts of British imperialism-Gibraltar, Malta, Cyprus, and Suez in the Mediterranean; Aden and Somaliland on opposite shores of the Red Sea; Kenya, India, Burma, Malaya, and Singapore along the Indian Ocean basin-enabled this small island nation. Just as American pioneers moved westward toward the Pacific Ocean at the expense of the indigenous Amerinds and the weak government of Mexico, Rus- sian settlers drove eastward across the sparsely populated wasteland of Siberia toward the opposite. This implied the preservation of naval domination of the Mediterranean- Suez-Red Sea-Indian Ocean route as well as the establishment of strategically located bases and refueling stations along the way. Rheta Grenoble Keylor, displayed through- out the entire period of this book's composition her customary patience, forbear- ance, and good sense when various deadlines (both internally and externally im- posed) temporarily upset carefully established schedules of parenting and housework. '95 The Russo-Japanese War, But the prospects for continued Japanese economic growth were limited by several constraints imposed by the accidents of geography. There is no dearth of serviceable textbooks treating the foreign relations of a particular nation or region during the twentieth century.