Slide 7, of a Calvin and Hobbes' comic strip, shows Calvin and his tiger friend Hobbes in one of their endless silly debates about who will be the highest officer in their tree-house club. Ral Fernandez, a Professor of Chicano Studies at the University of California-Irvine, shared with me a letter to the editor that he wrote to the Los Angeles Times, objecting to the use of the word cojones'. The cover shows a young Mexican-American man along with the title of the feature article: Gang-Bangers: La Muerte y la Sangre en el Barrio Centro, Death and Blood in the Barrio Centro '. Instead, the domain of Mock Spanish is the graduate seminar, the board room, the country-club reception. However, I am told by Spanish-speaking Americans that the skit has, for them, quite different readings. This is, of course, the classic tin-horn Latin American dictator, dripping with undeserved medals and presiding in a corrupt and ineffectual manner over a backwater banana republic. And each time that it is used, it inexorably reproduces a highly negative stereotype of speakers of Spanish. Smits replies mildly that mEn'[email protected] (the normal Anglicization) would be fine, or even mEn'[email protected] Slide 14 is an advertisement for a candy store in Tucson, but Slide 15 illustrates a cartoon from The New Yorker magazine, entitled God's Subcontractors'. The clip opens as Stoney Pauly Shore's character, escorts Linc' to his Spanish class. Slide 16 shows the front of the card, with the legend Pablo, the Christmas Chihuahua, has a holiday wish for you' over a drawing of a ludicrously ugly little dog wearing a huge sombrero and scratching frantically. Slide 9 is a newspaper advertisement for a sale at Contents, an exclusive furniture store in Tucson.
To these two types we need to add a third, at the most covert end of the continuum, reproducing racism almost entirely through indirect indexicality. These absurd mispronunciations provide a rich source of vulgar puns, some of them best rendered in writing, as in the following examples. By direct indexicality they project variously humor, a streetwise acquaintance with Spanish, a sense of Southwestern regional identity (especially for the greeting card and the advertising sign and, for the Terminator 2' screenwriters, a representation of what. Dnde está el sanitario?' (The cheese is old and moldy. I would argue, along with many contemporary theorists of racism such as van Dijk ( 1993 Essed ( 1991 and Goldberg ( 1993 that to find that an action or utterance is racist one does not have to demonstrate that the racism is consciously intended. On the front the words Como frijoles?' are spelled out in small brown beans. Cowboy' Spanish is largely restricted to the. The other actor still refuses to understand him, and Mendoza' loses it finally, leaping to his feet and shouting, An e:nchi'la:dha! However, they add an additional dimension to the indirect indexicality: hyperanglicized pronunciation expresses iconically the extreme social distance of the speaker, and of Mock Spanish itself, from actual Spanish and any possible negative contamination that a speaker might. The first slide illustrating this strategy, Slide 10, is of a coffee cup. 13) attests the word Adios' (from the Spanish farewell) in the full range of senses in Mock Spanish, from the merely warm' (The attentive host, who gently waves, with his hand, a final dios' from a window' (Gregg Commerce 156.
My final example for the strategy of hyperanglicization is a video of a very complex and ambivalent skit from the television program Saturday Night Live'. I thought to myself, No problem, Pam. With honors, but has received no job offers after filing more than 100 applications. See, you're gettin'. The second strategy borrows Spanish words that have highly negative connotations even in the original language, including scatological and obscene expressions. Before detailing these, it is important to emphasize that Mock Spanish is used almost entirely by Anglo speakers of English, addressed to other Anglos. More often, essays of this type have been termed periodical essays or, since the 1960s, literary journalism. Topical essayists are often by necessity travel essayists, with the writer going in search of the story. While No problemo' is perhaps the most frequent example of -o suffixing in Mock Spanish, the technique is extraordinarily productive, far beyond standard examples such as el cheap-o' for an especially low-quality product. The arm must be destroyed, so that the Terminator technology can never threaten humanity. The coffee cup shown was purchased, attractively packaged in its own gift box, in a card and gift shop only a few doors from the University of Arizona campus (the source of many of the items discussed here; the store. The image of a stereotyped Mexican' shown on this greeting card (it also appears on the Adios' card in Slide 3 ) is repeated on slides 27 and. Mock Spanish itself is a system of four major strategies for the incorporation' of Spanish-language materials into English.
The deep price cuts are announced under the headline Contemporary and Southwestern Dining, For Pesos'. The Mock Spanish form serves as a euphemism for the corresponding rude English word, or creates a new, especially negative semantic space. A colleague, criticizing a sister department for its approach to undergraduate education, proclaimed, Over there, it's all.A.'s. These strategies yield expressions that belong to a pragmatic zone bounded on one end by the merely jocular, and on the other by the obscene insult. The two proceed to Spanish class (past a pair of white! The best are on the South-central side of town, in neighborhoods with many Spanish-speaking residents.
This is free of charge. No problemo' is ubiquitous. I conclude with a brief discussion of additional evidence, beyond the semiotic analysis, that Mock Spanish constitutes a racist discourse. 22 Slides 20 and 21 show a birthday card; the front shows a cow, clad in sombrero and serape. Through its use, the upwardly mobile system of whiteness' is created covertly, through the indirect indexicality of hundreds of taken- for-granted commonplace utterances that function to racialize' their targets, constructing them as members of a human group represented as essentially inferior. Because of its seeming innocence, it can find its way into a film seen by literally hundreds of millions of people, and can become a clever new casual expression, functioning in that useful range of meanings that range. You gotta listen to the way people talk.
The students dutifully repeat this sentence. It functions, therefore, as a racist discourse in itself. The Antonio Mendoza' character expresses for them their own negative feelings about English accents satirical essay molly ivins in Spanish, which they find grating. One of the best known satirical works in English is Jonathan Swift's. You don't say Affirmative or some shit like that, you say No problemo'. Opening the card ( slide 19 we find more grass and the word Grass-ias a hyperanglicized version of Spanish gracias Thanks' that yields the pun. While it is often represented as a part of working-class white vernacular, I think that this is incorrect. Slide 30 shows a card by the famous cartoonist Gary Larson. The girl slaps the cholo, who collapses, weeping, into the arms of his supporters. Bye, guys, sell mucho bookos'. More often than we have acknowledged, satire makes use of 'ornamental rhetoric." "I do not mean to suggest that after the first century epideictic rhetoric served only as entertainment, or that in making use of epideictic rhetoric satirists. 24 The skit features the well-known Latino actor Jimmy Smits, a role model for youth who is frequently featured in literacy and anti-drug campaigns. Language Culture: Symposium 2, released: Mon Oct 9 10:58:59 1995, project Leader: Douglas.
The doctor threatens Marlowe with a beating if he doesn't leave. Under this interpretation, Jimmy Smits is in fact playing into the hands of anti-Spanish sentiment. Van Dijk has demonstrated that expressions like, I don't have anything against Mexicans as such. I thought I was going to die, not only from his smell, but from the killer cockroaches the size of hamsters in the back seat. The skit opens in a conference room where a television news program is finishing up; the reporter closes her story with the words, This is Robin Fletcher, reporting live from Managua, Nicaragua'. The store flatters its clientele by suggesting that they are of the Southwest able to interpret these Spanish expressions. Literary Journalism: A New Collection of the Best American Nonfiction, edited by Norman Sims, New York: Ballantine, 1995. However, by using Mock Spanish they play their part in a larger racist system, and contribute to its pernicious and lethal effects. A number of the examples are illustrated with photographs, and a few are also illustrated with video clips, as indicated in the text. The interest here, of course, is that the software is called El Fish' as a joke, because the fish are not real' fish, but simulated fake fish.
The term topical essay is not commonly used. The second pair of slides is of a thank-you card. NYU Press, 2009) In September 2015, Trevor Noah replaced Jon Stewart as host of The Daily Show. I then illustrate contemporary Mock Spanish usage, emphasizing that it constitutes a linguistic system of substantial regularity. The example of calaboose' for jail' discussed above is a case that functions semantically much like peon'. Willem de Reuse has told me about a very interesting example he found in his ethnohistoric research on the Apaches in the 1860's. These uses of Adios' cannot be understood except under the dual indexicality' analysis. Agnes Repplier, in her 1918 essay The American Essay in Wartime, argued that the leisure and reflection that had long been key to the personality of the essay was no longer justifiable. Certainly some Mexican-Americans find the tokens of Mock Spanish that I have shown them (including many of the items described above) to be entertaining. No matter the name, though, the 20th century has seen a surge of essays satirical essay molly ivins written in response to world events well outside the writers lives. But it is at the very least polite, and, like Goodbye it is not in the least slangy.
Contents, introduction, a Brief History of Mock Spanish, mock Spanish As A System Of Strategies For Borrowing. In the early 1700s, there were upwards of 18 newspapers being published in London including Daniel Defoes A Review of the Affairs of France (170413 which combined news, political moderation, wit, and satirical essay molly ivins social comment, and helped mold the audience. The second sounds sleazy and weaselly to many thoughtful Anglos. The covert practices of Mock Spanish can even be contributed to the system of whiteness by people who are not, personally, racist in any of the usual senses. It would be very muy bueno because an to:nyo is very 'ha:ngri! Terminator: No problemo (in a somewhat more natural voice) This fascinating scene clearly locates Mock Spanish in the same register with extremely vulgar English expressions. In the first scene, the Good Terminator is driving John Connor and his mother to a desert hideout. Furthermore, I have shown that many Mexican-Americans of my acquaintance concur that it is racist, and I have argued, following van Dijk ( 1993 that their views must be taken very seriously. The OED citations all attest a fairly straightforward referential usage of the word in the meaning an unskilled laborer and include no example of the ironic and insulting sense of the word that is clearly intended on this coffee cup. The Battle of the Books, 1704) satire is tragedy plus time. And if someone comes off to you with an attitude, you say Eat me'. Thus it was clearly judged by campaign managers and consultants as highly effective, resonating deeply with public sentiment. In semantic derogation' 7 a positive or neutral Spanish word is borrowed as a Mock Spanish expression and given a humorous or negative meaning.
Using metaphors, novelist Peter De Vries explained the difference between satire and humor: "The satirist shoots to kill while the humorist brings his prey back aliveoften to release him again for another chance.". Cojones' is widely used as a euphemism for the vulgar English balls'. I would argue, however, that this last is the most powerful of the three. It is highly unlikely that the anticipated owner of the cup would be an unskilled laborer'. Racism is judged, instead, by its effects: of successful discrimination and exclusion of members of the racialized group from goods and resources enjoyed by members of the racializing group. One can hear Americans say beaucoup trouble' and Mercy Buckets just as one can hear them say mucho trouble' and Much Grass'. Chandler does not document Mock Spanish in Los Angeles until his 1953 novel The Long Goodbye. Slides 16 and 17 show a Christmas card (it is printed on environmentally-sensitive recycled paper, as are many of my Mock Spanish greeting cards).
It has also often been the ambition of newspaper columnists to be topical essayists writers who can address current events factually but in a way that captures the essays traditional depth of reflection and personality. Furthermore, I suggest that Mock Spanish usages actively produce this residue. Yet, the roots of the topical essay are in the 18th century, in English newspapers which satirical essay molly ivins routinely combined current news with sharp political commentary. University Press of Florida, 1991). How, they argue, can Mock Spanish be racist?
Turning to the twentieth century, while dare provides ample attestations, evidence for my claim that Mock Spanish is especially productive among elites can be found in an article published in American Speech in 1949 by a University. Unlike Caca de Toro which does not exist as an idiom in Spanish, pen is well-established in that language in a negative meaning, originating as the insult pedn one with large feet and referring today to people in low occupations. This is a superb demonstration of the direct indexicality of Mock Spanish: it recruits positive qualities to whiteness. In the strip a group of teenagers are skiing. Shunning is out of the question as is full acceptance." "Unruly, wayward, frolicsome, critical, parasitic, at times perverse, malicious, cynical, scornful, unstable-it is at once pervasive yet recalcitrant, base yet impenetrable. The final example of Adios' appears in a video clip from Terminator 2: Judgment Day a film which made satirical essay molly ivins heavy use of Mock Spanish. However, Mock Spanish forms are often more than merely Anglicized. Perhaps all columnists can trace their roots and influences back to Addision and Steele. Mock Spanish in print is very frequently associated with patently racist imagery. In the next scene we see the most famous token of Hasta la vista, baby', when Schwarzenegger utters his newly-acquired line as he destroys the evil terminator with a powerful gun.
Instead, they undergo what I call (Hill 1993a ) hyperanglicization yielding pronunciations that are widely known to be ludicrous departures from their Spanish originals. The cup bears the slogan, Caca de Toro obviously a euphemism for the English expression, Bullshit'. Again, by direct indexicality, El Tigre Numero Uno' is funny, and satirical essay molly ivins is also part of Hobbes' cool and witty persona. Instead, it is glossed as follows: That's Spanish for, sure, go ahead and leave your friends, the only people who really care about you, the ones who would loan you their last thin dime, give you the shirts. The software offers a diverse menu for each component of the aquarium, permitting many different combinations. Often the news event is the pretext for the essay rather than the true or ultimate topic of engagement.
The comic strip shown in Slide 8, For Better or for Worse is by a Canadian artist, and has Canadian content and ambiance. The Good Terminator, John Connor, and Connor's heroic mother Sarah have stolen the arm of the first Terminator (who tried to prevent Connor's conception by killing Sarah!) from scientists who foolishly preserved it for study. Those who hear Mock Spanish jokes, for instance, cannot possibly get' them - that is, the jokes will not be funny - unless the hearer has instant, unreflecting access to a cultural model of Spanish speakers' that includes the negative residue. And if you want to shine them on, you say, Hasta la vista, baby'. Mock Spanish is produced according to quite regular strategies. This film was obviously aimed at young people, and carried, astonishingly, a PG' rating. The first photograph, Slide 1, is intended to illustrate a usage that is not part of Mock Spanish. The well-known political columnist Molly Ivins was Briggs's colleague on the Times-Herald, and her own use of this enumeration frame in her columns in the service of the creation of a colloquial Texas English is probably borrowed from him. Mendoza has declined before, but he says, OK, I guess I'll have an EnchI'laDdh (in the normal Anglicization). Instead, it suggests that we view competent members of minority communities as especially likely to be able to make nuanced discriminations between racist and non-racist or anti-racist practice, because it is precisely they who have the most at stake in making such distinctions. You're right, ese he chuckles. The show then becomes a focal point for existing dissatisfaction with the political sphere and its media coverage, while Jon Stewart as high-profile host, becomes a viewer surrogate, able to express that dissatisfaction through his comedic transformation of the real." (Amber Day, "And Now. I have concluded, on the basis of limited and informal observation, that it is largely an elite usage, but it may be extending its reach across the social organization of the system of Whiteness.
I have never addressed an audience on this topic without having an Anglo member of the audience tell me that my analysis is incorrect, because a Mexican-American or Puerto Rican friend of theirs once sent them. In Latin America it came to designate a person held in debt servitude in a low occupation. The argument, in summary, is that speakers and hearers can only interpret utterances in Mock Spanish insofar as they have access to the negative residue of meaning. The very common Mock Spanish expression No problemo' (that we already encountered in the first scene satirical essay molly ivins from the video clip from Terminator 2: Judgment Day' ) is an excellent example of this strategy. Strategy IV: Hyperanglicization And Bold Mispronunciation. The greeting inside the card ( Slide 17 ) is Fleas Navidad a pun on the Spanish Christmas salutation, Feliz Navidad. A virtuoso user of this type of enumeration is Joe Bob Briggs, for several years a columnist for the Dallas Times-Herald, where he created a hilarious column in which he reviewed drive-in movie monster and horror films, using the persona. Only this presence makes possible the humorous and/or insulting quality of Adios' in these usages. The clip from Encino Man' shows the Stoney character pretending to fart as he describes Mexican food. Further Evidence For Racism in Mock Spanish. Tucson enjoys many very good and quite serious Mexican restaurants, some of them internationally famous for authentic and creative development of this cuisine.
Eightyfive essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, originating as columns in New York newspapers and coming to be called The Federalist, defended the drafting of the.S. It seems to me obvious, however, that these other mock' usages are today scattered and relatively unproductive, in stark comparison with Mock Spanish. The purpose of this paper is to argue for this semiotic analysis of dual indexicality'. This word is from Spanish calabozo prison' (especially, a subterranean cell, or an isolation cell within a prison). 28 In summary, thoughtful people among the Latino and Chicano population in the Southwest usually define Mock Spanish as a racist practice. Mendoza' observes that the others present really like Latino food; one character proudly announces that his taste for such food was developed growing up in loh 'hangeles. The second register is Nouvelle' Spanish. However, it survives vigorously in a variety of minor media such as on these greeting cards.
With the coming of World War I, the formerly popular and dominant familiar essay came under attack as too genteel, too irresponsible, too lacking in the insight and wisdom that a contemporary readership craved and even needed. For instance, its history needs more careful investigation. Yet their essays often captured the feel of their times in ways that more autobiographical or Personal essays rarely did. 29 I have shown that Mock Spanish usages cannot be interpreted unless interlocutors reproduce, through indirect indexicality, very negative images of Spanish and its speakers. We need to develop techniques by which to show when it has been more, and when less, intense and productive, and whether this ebb and flow of productivity coincides with economic cycles or other possibly related phenomena. I am arguing that satirists implicitly (and sometimes explicitly) ask that we observe and appreciate their skill. Adios, cucaracha with a picture of a fleeing roach, is a bus-bench advertisement for a Tucson exterminating company.
Grossly mispronouncing the language, the teacher tells the class, Vale, reptame en espæ ol: The cheese is old and moldy'. The stereotyped and racist vision of Spanish-speaking culture thus conveyed needs no further comment. This section is explained as Bennie's answer to the Border Patrol sort of our Mex-er-size area. Furthermore, many questions remain about Mock Spanish itself. But the humans of the future send a good terminator, played by Arnold Schwarzenegger, into the past to protect the boy. Strategy I: Mock Spanish Semantic Derogation. The contrast could not be more clear: Adios' for evil, Goodbye' for good. But the last seems to most Anglos to be utterly innocent, even delightful and clever. Slide 18 shows the front of the card, with a tiny mouse crouching in a sea of grass, and the word Muchas' (Many.
The racist and racializing residue of satirical essay molly ivins Mock Spanish is assigned to members of historically Spanish-speaking populations by indirect indexicality (Ochs 1990 ). The explosion of Mock Spanish that can be heard today in mass media is produced by the highly-paid Ivy-Leaguers who write The Simpsons Roseanne Northern Exposure and Terminator Two: Judgment Day and by the more modest literati who compose greeting-card texts and coffee-cup slogans. In Mock Spanish the word has been pejorated from this merely neutral meaning into a more extreme sense, meaning absolutely nothing'. Newspaper and magazine columns frequently fall into this category as well. It is not only cruel, it's profoundly vulgar. If the Terminator is to become human, to be redeemed from his machine nature, he must learn to talk this way too. The dialogue is as follows : Mother: Keep it under sixty-five, we don't want to be pulled over.