The burning of a candle, which is now absolutely separate from all actual motion; and it is as impossible for the duration of that flame for an hour last night to co-exist with any motion. The one may be called active, and the other passive power. Chapter xxxiii Of the Association of Ideas. For (not to go so far as annihilation of any particular body) I ask, whether a man cannot have the idea of the motion of one single body alone, without any other succeeding immediately into its place? The freest agents are so determined. In time the mind comes to reflect on its own operations about the ideas got by sensation, and thereby stores itself with a new set of ideas, which I call ideas of reflection.
I shall not here speak of that mistake which is the consequence of invincible error, which scarce deserves the name of wrong judgment; but of that wrong judgment which every man himself must a essay concerning human understanding confess to. It is true, the things producing in us these simple ideas are but few of them denominated by us, as if they were only the causes of them; but as if those ideas were real beings in them. But is not a man drunk and sober the same person? Thus, when I have the idea of such an action of a man who forbears to afford himself such meat, drink, and clothing, and other conveniences of life, as his riches and estate will be sufficient to supply. Pleasure or delight, and its opposite, pain, or uneasiness; power; existence; unity. Locke puts forth the underlying premise that simple ideas are created through experience, while more complex ideas are created by the mind as it integrates these simple ideas into more complex concepts. Objects near our view are apt to be thought greater than those of a larger size that are more remote. From reflection on the train of ideas, which we find to appear one after another in our own minds, seems plain to me, in that we have no perception of duration but by considering the train of ideas that take their turns in our understandings.
Is there anything more common? Comparing two men in reference to one common parent, it is very easy to frame the ideas of brothers, without having yet the perfect idea of a man. And if this be a weakness to which all men are so liable, if this be a taint which so universally infects mankind, the greater care should be taken to lay it open under its due name, thereby. For, by the violence of their imaginations, having taken their fancies for realities, they make right deductions from them. Thus, supposing gratitude to be a readiness to acknowledge and return kindness received; polygamy to be the having more wives than one at once: when we frame these notions thus in our minds, we have there so many determined ideas of mixed modes. Who is there almost, who would not take it amiss if it should be doubted whether he called himself a man, with any other meaning than as having the real essence of a man? Sunt sua praemia laudi, says Virgil; and so Cicero, Nihil habet natura praestantius, quam honestatem, quam laudem, quam dignitatem, quam decus, which he tells you are all names for the same thing. Different meanings of substance. For the golden globe thus filled, being put into a press, which was driven by the extreme force of screws, the water made itself way through the pores of that very close metal, and finding no room for. And so of duration. But whether or no our ideas of mixed modes are more liable than any sort to be different from those of other men, which are marked by the same names, this at least is certain, That this sort of falsehood. Till then, the idea in the mind of whatever is good is there only, like other ideas, the object of bare unactive speculation; but operates not on the will, nor sets us on work; the reason whereof I shall show by and. For either way, the complex idea of gold being made up of such simple ones as have no union in nature, may be termed false.
The notion of spirit involves no more difficulty in a essay concerning human understanding it than that of body. By the operation of insensible particles on our senses. Ideas considered in reference to their archetypes. Thus any vehement pain of the body; the ungovernable passion of a man violently in love; or the impatient desire of revenge, keeps the will steady and intent; and the will, thus determined, never lets the understanding. Secondly, there are others compounded of simple ideas of several kinds, put together to make one complex one;.g. But whether sleeping without dreaming be not an affection of the whole man, mind as well as body, may be worth a waking mans consideration; it being hard to conceive that anything should think and not be conscious. These, and the like fashions of speaking, intimate that the substance is supposed always something besides the extension, figure, solidity, motion, thinking, or other observable ideas, though we know not what.
And this endless addition or addibility a essay concerning human understanding (if any one like the word better) of numbers, so apparent to the mind, is that, I think, which gives us the clearest and most distinct idea of infinity: of which more in the following chapter. For, though men uniting into politic societies, have resigned up to the public the disposing of all their force, so that they cannot employ it against any fellow-citizens any further than the law of the country directs: yet. Though the qualities that affect our senses are, in the things themselves, so united and blended, that there is no separation, no distance between them; yet it is plain, the ideas they produce in the mind enter by the senses simple and unmixed. Beyond all this, we may find another reason why God hath scattered up and down several degrees of pleasure and pain, in all the things that environ and affect us; and blended them together in almost all. The reason whereof is, that, in these two cases a mass of matter and a living body identity is not applied to the same thing. But as soon as any new uneasiness comes in, this happiness is disturbed, and we are set afresh on work in the pursuit of happiness. Whiter, sweeter, equal, more,. If those ideas which are constantly joined to all others, must therefore be concluded to be the essence of those things which have constantly those ideas joined to them, and are inseparable from them; then unity is without doubt the essence of everything.
I confess myself to have one of those dull souls, that doth not perceive itself always to contemplate ideas; nor can conceive it any more necessary for the soul always to think, than for the body always. Thus the two ideas of a man and a centaur, supposed to be the ideas of real substances, are the one true and the other false; the one having a conformity to what has really existed, the other not. Primary qualities of bodies. And so abundance of words, in ordinary speech, stand only for relations (and perhaps the greatest part) which at first sight seem to have no such signification:.g. But when I call it a man or Tartar, and imagine it to represent some real being without me, or to be the same idea that others call by the same name; in either of these cases I may err. But whatsoever to some men makes a man, and consequently the same individual man, wherein perhaps few are agreed, personal identity can by us be placed in nothing but consciousness, (which is that alone which makes what we call self. This, if it be to a great degree, is stupidity; and he who, through this default in his memory, has not the ideas that are really preserved a essay concerning human understanding there, ready at hand when need and occasion calls for them.
And this, both motion and figure, are really in the manna, whether we take notice of them or no: this everybody is ready to agree. Fear is an uneasiness of the mind, upon the thought of future evil likely to befal. The next faculty of the mind, whereby it makes a further progress towards knowledge, is that which I call retention; or the keeping of those simple ideas which from sensation or reflection it hath received. The ideas that make our complex ones of corporeal substances, are of these three sorts. For, all absent good, by which alone, barely proposed, and coming in view, a essay concerning human understanding the will is thought to be determined, and so to set us on action, being only possible, but not infallibly certain, it is unavoidable that the infinitely. Not explained by an ambient fluid. We shall consider them apart under these several heads. These here mentioned, being the effects of sensation, are only from some affections of the body, which happen to them there, and so depend on something exterior to the mind; no otherwise differing in their manner of production. Sensations often changed by the judgment. For, since we can know nothing further than we have the idea of it, when that is gone, we are in perfect ignorance. The cause of our judging amiss, when we compare our present pleasure or pain with future, seems to me to be the weak and narrow constitution of our minds. And if the common reckoning Of 5639 should be true, (as it may be as well as any other assigned it hinders not at all my imagining what others mean, when they make the world one thousand years. Nor indeed does motion any otherwise conduce to the measuring of duration, than as it constantly brings about the return of certain sensible ideas, in seeming equidistant periods.
For the truth of these appearances or perceptions in our minds consisting, as has been said, only in their being answerable to the powers in external objects to produce by our senses such appearances. For, it is evident that the space that was filled by the parts of the annihilated body will still remain, and be a space without body. Though the mind be wholly passive in respect of its simple ideas; yet, I think, we may say it is not so in respect of its complex ideas. It is of a young gentleman, who, having learnt to dance, and that to great perfection, there happened to stand an old trunk in the room where he learnt. Which essence, since they who so use the names know not, their ideas of substances must be all inadequate in that respect, as not containing in them that real essence which the mind intends they should.
Because man comprehends not in his knowledge or power all past and future things: his thoughts are but of yesterday, and he knows not what tomorrow will bring forth. As a clear idea is that whereof the a essay concerning human understanding mind has such a full and evident perception, as it does receive from an outward object operating duly on a well-disposed organ, so a distinct idea is that wherein the mind. There are yet, besides those, other words of time, that ordinarily are thought to stand for positive ideas, which yet will, when considered, be found to be relative; such as are, young, old,., which include and intimate. We must, therefore, carefully distinguish betwixt duration itself, and the measures we make use of to judge of its length. Without some such fixed parts or periods, the order of things would be lost, to our finite understandings, in the boundless invariable oceans of duration and expansion, which comprehend in them all finite beings, and in their full extent belong only to the Deity. In short, herein seems to lie the difference between idiots and madmen: that madmen put wrong ideas together, and so make wrong propositions, but argue and reason right from them; but idiots make very few or no propositions, and reason scarce at all. The picture, or clock may be so placed, that they may come in his way every day; but yet he will have but a confused idea of all the parts they are made up of, till he applies himself. Whereas, on the other side, the sober man ventures nothing against infinite happiness to be got, if his expectation comes not to pass. This personality extends itself beyond present existence to what is past, only by consciousness whereby it becomes concerned and accountable; owns and imputes to itself past actions, just upon the same ground and for the same reason as it does the present. And that this may be so, we have plain instances, even in mankind itself. Bring it home upon himself, and consider it as present, and there take its true dimensions? Chapter xxvii Of Identity and Diversity. Or rather, would he not have reason to think that my design was to make sport with him, rather than seriously to instruct him?
For to have the idea of cause and effect, it suffices to consider any simple idea or substance, as beginning to exist, by the operation of some other, without knowing the manner of that operation. And so we may observe how the mind, by degrees, improves in these; and advances to the exercise of those other faculties of enlarging, compounding, and abstracting its ideas, and of reasoning about them, and reflecting upon. The power of annihilation proves a vacuum. Difference between idiots and madmen. Of our thinking conscious self. Therefore those never went into his idea of that species of body; but its peculiar colour, perhaps, and weight, were the first he abstracted from it, to make the complex idea of that species. And as to this, I say, he that considers something now existing, must necessarily come to Something eternal. Thus the first capacity of human intellect is, that the mind is fitted to receive the impressions made on it; either through the senses by outward objects, or by its own operations when it reflects on them. Of these modes, there are two sorts which deserve distinct consideration: First, there are some which are only variations, or different combinations of the same simple idea, without the mixture of any other; as a dozen,. For, having by sensation and reflection stored our minds with simple ideas, and by use got the names that stand for them, we can by those means represent to another any complex idea we would have. I have taken care that the reader should have the story at large in the authors own words, because he seems to me not to have thought it incredible; for it cannot be imagined that so able. Only I have thought the term solidity the more proper to express this idea, not only because of its vulgar use in that sense, but also because it carries something more of positive in it than impenetrability; which. By the second and third, Socrates, in this life and after it, cannot be the same man any way, but by the same consciousness; and so making human identity to consist in the same thing wherein we place personal.
If to break loose from the conduct of reason, and a essay concerning human understanding to want that restraint of examination and judgment which keeps us from choosing or doing the worse, be liberty, true liberty, madmen and fools are the only freemen. But in this every one has his liberty: I propose it only for the more clear and distinct way of speaking. For, through receiving the idea of heat or light from the sun, we are apt to think it is a perception and resemblance of such a quality in the sun; yet when we see wax, or a fair. Brutes abstract not, yet are not bare machines. Men may err in comparing present and future. The simple ideas whereof we make our complex ones of substances are all of them (bating only the figure and bulk of some sorts) powers; which being relations to other substances, we can never be sure. Simple ideas all adequate. For the colour and taste of opium are, as well as its soporific or anodyne virtues, mere powers, depending on its primary qualities, whereby it is fitted to produce different operations on different parts of our bodies. The true and proper answer is, The mind.
Solidity is so inseparable an idea from body, that upon that depends its filling of space, its contact, impulse, and communication of motion upon impulse. It seems as easy to a essay concerning human understanding me to have the idea of space empty of body, as to think of the capacity of a bushel without corn, or the hollow of a nut-shell without a kernel in it:. A power of beginning or stopping several thoughts or motions. A neighbouring country has been of late a tragical theatre from which we might fetch instances, if there needed any, and the world did not in all countries and ages furnish examples enough to confirm that received observation, Necessitas. Power thus considered is two-fold, viz. For trial, let him take any figure, any degree of light or whiteness, or what other he pleases, and he will, I suppose, find it difficult to keep all other ideas out of his mind; but that some, either. I have added this, to show in what sort of indifferency liberty seems to me to consist, and not in any other, real or imaginary. This we call duration; the simple modes whereof are any different lengths of it whereof we have distinct ideas, as hours, days, years,., time and eternity. For example, what is a watch? The parts of space, immovable. Persons, not substances, the objects of reward and punishment.
The wrong judgment I am here speaking of is not what one man may think of the determination of another, but what every man himself must confess to be wrong. No knowledge without discernment. But where languages have failed to give correlative names, there the relation is not always so easily taken notice. He said, with his usual plainness and dryness in talk, there was something true, but a great deal false of what had been reported. Had this happened to him by an over-dose of honey when a child, all the same effects would have followed; but the cause would have been mistaken, and the antipathy counted natural. Men, for the use and by the custom of measuring, settle in their minds the ideas of certain stated lengths such as are an inch, foot, yard, fathom, mile, diameter of the earth,., which are so many distinct ideas made up only of space. The dominion of man, in this little world of his own understanding being muchwhat the same as it is in the great world of visible things; wherein his power, however managed by art and skill, reaches no farther than. For father and son, husband and wife, and such other correlative terms, seem so nearly to belong one to another, and, through custom, do so readily chime and answer one another in peoples memories, that, upon the naming. All relatives made up of simple ideas. Very swift motions unperceived.
Because then meant, in propriety of speech, to correspond to the ideas in some other mind. I think it unavoidable for every considering, rational creature, that will but examine his own or any other existence, to have the notion of an eternal, wise Being, who had no beginning: and such an idea of infinite duration I am sure I have. For faculty, ability, and power, I think, are but different names of the same things: which ways of speaking, when put into more intelligible words, will, I think, amount to thus a essay concerning human understanding much; That digestion is performed by something. But, if pleasure or pain can be so lessened only by a few hours removal, how much more will it be so by a further distance, to a man that will not, by a right judgment, do what time will,.e. This further is to be observed, that there is no idea we attribute to God, bating infinity, which is not also a part of our complex idea of other spirits. Thus the measure of what is everywhere called and esteemed virtue and vice is this approbation or dislike, praise or blame, which, by a secret and tacit consent, establishes itself in the several societies, tribes, and clubs of men. For these representations, if they have nothing in them but what is really existing in things without, cannot be thought false, being exact representations of something: nor yet if they have anything in them differing from the reality. This essence, from which all these properties flow, when I inquire into it and search after it, I plainly perceive I cannot discover: the furthest I can go is, only to presume that, it being nothing but body, its real. Creation, generation, making, alteration. The ideas that are in a mans mind, simply considered, cannot be wrong; unless complex ones, wherein inconsistent parts are jumbled together. Duration, in itself, is to be considered as going on in one constant, equal, uniform course: but none of the measures of it which we make use of can be known to do so, nor can we be assured.
This opinion I a essay concerning human understanding have at large examined already; and, I suppose what I have said in the foregoing Book will be much more easily admitted, when I have shown whence the understanding may get all the ideas. If they say the man thinks always, but is not always conscious of it, they may as well say his body is extended without having parts. I can speak but of what I find in myself, and is agreeable to those notions, which, if we will examine the whole course of men in their several ages, countries, and educations, seem to depend on those foundations. This collection of simple ideas, being found by me to agree or disagree with the esteem of the country I have been bred in, and to be held by most men there worthy praise or blame, I call. So that personal identity, reaching no further than consciousness reaches, a pre-existent spirit not having continued so many ages in a state of silence, must needs make different persons. The actual exercise of that power, by directing any particular action, or its forbearance, is that which we call volition or willing. I mention this, not out of any great necessity there is in this present argument to distinguish nicely between natural and acquired antipathies; but I take notice of it for another purpose, viz.
The sentence shall be justified by the consciousness all persons shall have, that they themselves, in what bodies soever they appear, or what substances soever that consciousness adheres to, are the same that committed those actions, and deserve that punishment for them. And therefore we are not to wonder that we comprehend them not, and do so often find our thoughts at a loss, when we would consider them, either abstractly in themselves, or as any way attributed to the first incomprehensible Being. I grant, that this or that actual thought may be the occasion of volition, or exercising the power a man has to choose; or the actual choice of the mind, the cause of actual thinking on this. Three sorts of ideas make our complex ones of corporeal substances. And would be by distance of time, or change of substance, no more two persons, than a man be two men by wearing other clothes to-day than he did yesterday, with a long or a short sleep between: the same consciousness. But this hinders not but that they themselves, as well as all other men, got the first ideas which they had of infinity from sensation and reflection, in the method we have here set down. Secondly, Another occasion of comparing things together, or considering one thing, so as to include in that consideration some other thing, is the circumstances of their origin or beginning; which being not afterwards to be altered, make the relations. Things in their present enjoyment are what they seem: the apparent and real good are, in this case, always the same.
First, by keeping the idea which is brought into it, for some time actually in view, which is called contemplation. And therefore those who place thinking in an immaterial substance only, before they can come to deal with these men, must show why personal identity cannot be preserved in the change of immaterial substances, or variety of particular immaterial. The idea of infinite has, I confess, something of positive in all those things we apply. But the act of volition, or preferring one of the two, being that which he cannot avoid, a man, in respect of that act of willing, is under a necessity, and so cannot be free; unless necessity and. There be other simple ideas which convey themselves into the mind by all the ways of sensation and reflection, viz. And as the mind, by putting together the repeated ideas of unity, makes the collective mode, or complex idea, of any number, as a score, or a gross,. Influence of association on intellectual habits. How can ideas like a circle being round and that 2 plus 2 equals four be considered innate, his essay, asks, when every child must be taught these thing before understanding them? For, when he has once chosen it, and thereby it is become a part of his happiness, it raises desire, and that proportionably gives him uneasiness; which determines his will, and sets him at work in pursuit of his choice on all occasions that offer. For, if sugar produce in us the ideas which we call whiteness and sweetness, we are sure there is a power in sugar to produce those ideas in our minds, or else they could not have been produced. This is standing still, where we are not sufficiently assured of the way: examination is consulting a guide. Substance which we know not, no proof against space without body.